Dates may be harvested in three stages of growth and investigation (Kharak, rotab and date), depending on cultivars, climatic conditions, type of consumption and warehousing facilities.
In some cases, changes in the climate and sharp conditions of early rain can cause damage to the product of dates.
Date crop can be harvested at the Kharak stage and converted to the product in a special room with a synthetic method.
Harvest dates, depending on the digits may be made in the form of clusters: with progressively and in a few steps. If the dates are separated by the full cluster of trees.
Date harvest operation should be done carefully because this stage has a great impact on product quality, during packaging and marketing.
During harvesting, you should avoid mixing different varieties of dates.
Workers who are involved in the harvesting of the product must observe the health and cleanliness of the individual and have a suitable and clean garment.
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When harvesting the product by the worker, under the tree, clean and washable coatings are wide, so that the product does not reach the soil.
The initial isolation must be carried out immediately after harvesting and the healthy places are placed in the containers with the appropriate volume and transferred to the packaging workshop, the fruit of the date should be harvested even at the early morning hours and move to the place of the store to prevent it from infecting.
Main operations in date packaging workshops
After harvesting, if the disinfection facilities are not provided at the harvest site, the product should be transferred to date packaging workshops as soon as possible.
It should be noted that the preparation and packaging of dates should be carried out faster to reduce the percentage of date contamination and its storage life.
Workers working in the date-packed workshops must have a valid health card and observe the health and cleanliness of the individual.
All workers who are in contact with the date product must be clean and have bright colors.
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The main operations that are carried out in packaging workshops to improve fruit quality of palm cultivars. Include:
Separation and grading
At the separation stage, the received injuries are discharged on the conveyor belt and workers in the two sides of the conveyor belt of damaged injuries, plagues, the Foxy, the rancid, wrinkled, and immature are separated.
The grading is also performed by the workers.
Workers should have seen necessary training in order to identify the defects of dates and how to isolate and grading it.
The washing operation should be performed with potable water and the product will be washed well.
Dates are used to wash the product of dates from the Palm wash visa.
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For some dates, such as mazafati dates, a wet towel can be used in order to remove the soil from the product.
It is also possible to harvest dates in the Kharak stage and after washing it, it has become a synthetic fruit.
The water used for washing dates should be in accordance with the Iranian national standard to the slogans of 1011 and 1053 drinking water of chemical and microbiological characteristics.
After the palm wash, it passes through the dehumidifiers that are in a number of fans.
The effect of blowing out of the conventional or hot air flow on the washed product of surface moisture is taken.
You can also take a look at the articles of palm culture and effective factors on reducing the price of dates.
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Humidity reduction in moisture content
In packaging yards, depending on date cultivar, moisture content may be applied for the normal supply with uniform moisture content and suitable texture on the product date.
Water-or vapor-moisture is performed in special chambers.
Moisture content leads to a woven softening and increasing the moisture content in dry and semi-arid trauma.
In some packaging workshops, the amount of wet dates are reduced by using drying machines and with hot air flow.
However, the temperature of the dryer should not remove the skin of dates from fruit meats and darken the color of the date.
There should be no more than 20% of the water after moisture, and otherwise it will be possible to operate microorganisms and date corruption.
For disinfection of date, different methods such as the use of phosphine, heat, cooling and radiation were investigated as a bromide alternative.
The application of methyl bromide has been banned in some countries, but its use was prevented by 2015 ad in developing countries, including Iran.
Temporary storage of dates prior to packaging
Some packaging workshops store dates in plastic baskets for a short period of time in the morgue to wrap in a suitable opportunity.
However, the height of dates inside this portfolios must be in such a way that the minimum damage to the product comes into.
It is also better to avoid waste of moisture in wet dates during storage, plastic baskets with nylon covered.
Packaging plays an important role in protection of dates against pests and infiltration of moisture and dust and also damage due to displacement and storage.
Containers used in packaging have different capacities according to market order.
Package and packaging features must be in accordance with Iran’s national standard number 5998.
The surfaces of the date, which has a direct contact with the date, must be approved for food and is not on the product of the date.