Preparing dry and semi-dried dates includes steps and steps that play an important role in the process of producing and supplying dates. Therefore, awareness of this important issue is necessary. Therefore, all factory owners and people who do dates work should be aware of and apply all the methods of preparing dry and semi-dried dates.
That is why it was decided to package all manner of preparation and also to explain. Be the guide for many date producers and suppliers.
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Dried and semi-dried dates
It is the last step in the physiological development of the palm fruit. At this stage, the fruit loses much of its moisture and the sugar-to-water ratio increases significantly.
To date it has been said that humidity is less than 18 percent.
To date it has been said that between 18 and 20 percent humidity.
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Preparation and packaging dates
There are many ways today, such as packaging, to preserve and enhance the look and taste of agricultural and food products so that seasonal products are available year-round and in stores around the world.
The main purpose of date packaging, like many food products, is to avoid the time of warehousing, transportation, distribution, and until the consumer reaches the important specifications of the preserved dates and the possible risks and dangers. The packaging can act as a leverage effective support and value-added in the price of the final product to maintain.
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Generally, date packaging is a set of date preparation system for transportation, distribution, warehousing, retailing and final consumption; in other words, date packaging is an economic technical function whose main purpose is to minimize Wastes and costs of distribution while maximizing the amount of sales as well as safe distribution of the product to the end consumer.
Essential in terms of packaging dates
In the process of product packaging, to achieve the goals of packaging to meet consumer needs, include the following:
What determines the quality depends largely on the social and economic context of the consumer and the intended use of the product. Consumers, which include two groups of Muslim and non-Muslim countries, require two different types of packaging depending on the volume of content. The first group, in particular, the Arab countries with larger packages with a larger date volume and the non-Muslim European countries are more likely to use smaller packages and smaller content volumes.
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Carefully choose the right color and sign for the package
Because colors are rooted in the cultures and traditions of the world of the world and express some of the concepts and symbols that need to be addressed
Form of packaging
The form should be as simple as possible and free from complexity and ambiguity. At the same time, the closed form must show the health of the goods.
Packaging containers should be well sealed to prevent contamination, moisture, insects and so on. In this case, customer confidence in the health of packaged dates will be well earned.
One of the important characteristics of date palm fruit that affects its marketability is related to its contamination by insects due to poor performance and poor storage conditions. During the post harvest period, storage and transportation of date fruits, especially those that are separate from the strains, contamination to all stages of insect life (adult, larvae and eggs) is likely. Damage to more than 6% of insects in palm fruit as a major problem causes the fruit to be rejected in accordance with the codec rules.
- short time period may be required for the transport and sale or maintenance of products or of a period of long-term storage as well.
- The temperature and cooling time should be commensurate with the product because slowing down metabolism can increase the physiological abnormalities that are called cold storage injuries.
- Adhering to the standards of the harvesting process until the date of transfer to the processing and packaging workshops ensures that the quality of the finished product is maintained.
Product preservation techniques
Product preservation is one of the most important processing techniques and its purpose is to increase shelf life and maintain the quality of the product in terms of color, taste and odor.
Expect a good maintenance technique:
Keeping up to date as much as possible
Keep it as safe as possible
Cheap and easy
Quality preservation (color, taste, texture)
- Special transfer containers
- Warehouses separate from the main production hall for product disinfection
- Weighing scales
- Conveyor belts and date checks
- Artificial delivery chamber
- Storage containers for packing containers
- Sealing, vacuum and shrink packaging machines
- Metal Detector
- Temperature-controlled warehouses for storing packed dates
- Uninterruptible power system
Harvesting, transportation and packaging of dates.
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Correct harvesting of dates is the first important step in the start of packing and processing operations. Proper harvesting will help to improve the quality of packaging workshops, so it is important to do this step correctly. Examples to consider when harvesting dates are as follows:
Paying full attention to dates at harvest, and not picking up on-date and inappropriate dates are important factors in the proper harvesting of dates.
Carefully segregate healthy and good quality dates from poor quality dates on a cluster or collected from palm trees.
Non-transfer of harvested dates to the packing kegs. The presence of clusters in the interior of your workshop will lead to the transmission of infections and insects to the workshops.
Lack of baskets and containers containing dates for a long time in the open space and palm trees. The product must be shipped immediately to the workshop or refrigerator
Transfer palm groves to the workshop
The harvested fruits are preferably transported to packaging workshops with washable plastic containers. In order to prevent mechanical damage that results in date crunching, appropriate size and volume containers should be used to move the product from the garden to the processing workshops. Plastic bags are also used to transport very dry and semi-dry date varieties.
The initial cleanup dates in the workshop
The first post-harvest operations on dates, including separation of mature dates from untreated dates, such as uninoculated fruits (chess).
They are either ripe or over-ripe fruits and fruits that have been damaged by insects, birds, rodents, transport, etc. during harvest or on the tree.
The output of the initial cleanup dates
- High quality and graded dates (Grades 1 to 2). Grading based on size is important because uniformity of size in a package is one of the criteria for determining dates.
- The dates that are damaged during harvest by insects, birds, rodents, transport, etc. are removed from the packaging cycle as waste.
- dates with high moisture content (so-called semi-moist, semi-moist)
If harvested dates have more moisture than standard humidity, it should be reduced to a standard level before disinfecting, washing and packing moisture, because high humidity causes microbial fermentation and souring of dates. Standard and safe humidity for each cultivar is specified and applicable in national standards. To dry the dates, they are housed in an artificial enclosure with the ability to control humidity and temperature, or the dates are stored on washable, single-layer tables in lounges equipped with heating and cooling systems to reduce humidity.
Final cleaning and separation
At this point grading fruit and fruit warheads are separated. Usually this is done manually by the worker.
Manual separation of dates is best done on stainless steel tables. These tables are washable, do not rust so they can be easily washed at the end of clean water, thus minimizing the risk of germ growth and contamination. All equipment and devices in direct contact with dates should be of stainless steel.
Next, the dates are transferred to the warehouse in plastic baskets for disinfection. There are various methods for disinfection of dates, such as heating, cooling, irradiation and the use of authorized toxic gases such as chlorine and its compounds, phosphine, methyl bromide. The toxic gases in the world due to secondary problems such as environmental problems are being removed from production processes.
Disinfection of the date product must comply with the Iranian National Standard 2339 (Code of Practice for Disinfection of Pulses and Beans). After the time required for disinfection with phosphine tablets (48 hours gasification time and 7 to 9 days time required to remove dates from undercover) in suitable chambers for this purpose, it should be opened in storage and Allow adequate ventilation for a few hours to remove any residual toxic vapors.
Freezing can also be used to control date pests. In this method for controlling pests, dates for 4 to 5 hours in zero negative cold (freezing temperature), are located.
This method will not adversely affect the taste and appearance of dates and will eliminate the risk of using aromatic products. Conventional heat (55 ° C for 20 minutes) and freezing (-25 ° C for 55 minutes) are effective for pest control.
Dates storage to delivery to the production line
The dates should be stored in the refrigerator and transported to the production line according to the production capacity. Keeping dates in open warehouses causes insect infestation.
Warehouses equipped with cooling or cooling systems are suitable for storing unprocessed dates. The method of storing dates in the refrigerator should be in accordance with the National Iranian Standard (830) The method of storing fresh fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator.
After the disinfection process, the dates are ready for washing. The biochemical and microbial stability of fruits such as dates depends strongly on the water status, which affects the crop characteristics. Dates that come into the garden from the garden may be contaminated with soil, dust and particles, and sand and chemicals. Cleansing can be done by blowing air on the fruit or brushing the dates lightly to prevent damage to the fruit skin or by washing the fruit with hygienic water. Cleansing the fruit can also be done by passing dates on wipes or water spray. Washing with hygienic water is very important to remove contaminants and dust, as well as to prevent contamination between clean and contaminated product, disinfection and disinfection.
The water used to wash the dates on the production line shall be exclusively potable water with features in accordance with the latest revision of the National Iranian Standard No. (1011) and (1053).