Date palm is dioecious plant pollination as the first and most important step in the production of fruit Ast. May be said that the extraction of palm tree pollen is of special importance in the region. The natural pollination of this plant by wind and insects is an uneconomic method, and hence the commercial production of dates requires artificial pollination by humans or by pollinating machines.
This operation requires sufficient pollen, healthy, safe and of acceptable quality, so that access to it during pollen season is guaranteed and the possibility of its maintenance is also provided for use in the following year. Limited period of access to the pollen in the pollen season distinguishing it from other institutions of the inputs is common. So that the lack of coincidence in the treatment of male and female flowers can lead to a sharp decline in production.
Thus, according to the established procedures to maintain optimum production as a key element in the sustainable production of palm and guarantee farmers’ incomes have been considered. Accordingly, in this recipe, the key to effective use of the maximum available capacity is to reduce its losses in the production cycle under the traditional conditions of gardeners.
The fresh pollen is a palm of date, fragrant and with an unprotected eye in appearance, like dusty dust). Its color is milky to light cream and looks pale brown under the microscope. Fresh pollen grains have a spherical shape with a diameter of approximately 15-20 microns. Its shape, after drying, is in the form of a single number boat, at the end of which it is conical. The length of the dry pollen grain varies depending on the number and conditions of the state between 1712 to 2687 micron, and width ranges between 7 and 156 micron. The use of dry pollen in mechanical pollination involves extraction, drying, and when required. The seed pollen seed at the time of consideration and in the fresh air with moisture equivalent to 15 to 20 percent. The storage and use of dry pollen requires a reduction in moisture to about 4 – 4 %. Its index properties in dry state can be referred to as smooth.
Step by step instructions extraction of palm pollen
Spot Separation :
- Spot male should be removed in a state of maturity of the palm. Spot separation is important at the right time. Spot lead to premature harvesting early cut flowers and therefore pollen production will be much less. Delay in this operation also leads to the opening of the spot and the release of its pollen in the air due to the normal flow of wind or during the removal of the spat and consequently reducing the amount of pollen.
After complete examination, the spat crust will leave behind as a result of rapid growth. This leaves proportional to the time and weather conditions developed area to horses run fully open and release pollen in the air. This will result in the loss of a large amount of pollen. Hence, the male spit palms should be removed before it develops.
The identification of the ripe male spot is usually carried out on the basis of the state of the arrangement, the change of color, and the brittleness. The male spot has changed from its vertical position in an inclined state, leaning against the nearby leaves. It also changes the color of the male spot in the care of green to brown, and if they push the spot between the fingers, there is a crack in the ear, which is, of course, the opening of the flowers. The color change is not the same for all the more digits and varies according to the basic male type
In the reached spot, after imaging, the flowers in the open face and internal sheath of the sheath are caused by a slight white pollen.
Order to provide the health of the garden and prevent the impact of pests and disease on the production of pollen, all the remains of clusters, the ends of the season and the spot infected with the flower – bearing disease should be separated from the palm.
Spot transfer and maintenance:
Spot in a state of severe respiratory rate is reached. Spreading more than one day from palm trees in this condition causes the flower to fall and becomes unusable under normal conditions. Therefore, the picked male spot should be treated quickly according to the type of consumption.
Sometimes the palm-breeders harvest the premature spots in order to reduce the time of climbing the palm. In this case, the spots are kept intact for 1 to 2 days intact until the so-called treatment is complete. Spot maintenance in this situation leads to flowering and is therefore not recommended. In some cases, the storage location of the clamping point in a sugar solution has also been observed in order to complete the processing process.
If you need to keep pollen for years, kept pure pollen the perfect spot maintenance due to less space and energy requirements, and the risks less viability is preferred. Due to the high moisture content and freezing of the water in the entire spit, there is a risk of pollen loss.
Due to the possibility of transmission of contamination to the palm tree, it is as likely as possible to prevent the purchase of spots from other areas.
- A) Conditions for the extraction of pollen safety tips :
Long-term contact with pollen causes and exacerbates allergies and respiratory problems. So paying attention to the following points in date palm pollen is required:
- When working with pollen, it is essential to use masks and gloves. The selected mask should be such that it prevents particles from being larger than 8 microns.
It is necessary after completing the work of bathing and washing clothes. This reduces the sensitivity of the workers and people in contact with him.
Pollen extraction site
The pollen extraction site should be far from residential areas.
Mining area must include places for hanging the perfect spot to drying and special trays (preferably made of washable) spot on the floor to collect pollen released from them. The foam of these trays to prevent mildew can be covered with moisture absorbent paper such as newspaper paper.
In order to maintain the quality of pollen, its mining operations in cooler temperatures (preferably less than 25 degrees Celsius) and in a place with low light and ventilation to be done.
The airflow in the extraction site should be gentle and controlled. Sudden changes in air flow due to the opening and closing of the door or window can cause a considerable amount of dust to creep.
Pollen grains are very sensitive to heat injuries. Therefore, during pollen extract it should be stored at temperatures over 25 degrees. Otherwise, the reduction in the capacity of the pollen will be certain.
The high moisture content of the pollen causes it to become massive and mild and mild even at short intervals. Therefore, ventilation and rapid drying of pollen (at low temperatures should be carried out quickly and with constant monitoring to prevent its negative effects on pollen, especially in the first stage of extraction, which pollen has a high moisture content, is more sensitive.
How pollen extract
Overall palm pollen extract operations are done in two stages:
- The first stage involves the extraction of fresh pollen. At this stage, the spat shell must first be separated. This should be done above the level of absorbent paper, to collect pollen to be released. At this stage, the spots are controlled by Khamaj infection. If contamination is detected, the sputum should be extracted and extracted from the extraction process so that its contamination is not transmitted to other production groups.
- Hen he grabbed the cluster of flowers with both hands and twisted it gently into the opposite direction in several. This helps in opening the flower cluster and releasing the filaments. The effect of this action is cut off and it empties itself on the paper. In the continuation of the flower cluster,the flower is taken horizontally by one hand ,and with the other hand and by a beam,the flower enters the spot to separate the other part of the spot.
- The second phase is done after drying hanging clusters. At this stage, the impact on the spot is repeated. It is also possible to separate the flowers from the oats and to sieve using a nylon bag that is embedded in the lower part.
Some palisades in the second stage are chopping flowers by electric grinders and then sifting flowers. Grinding flower pollen can cause damage and reduce its viability. Therefore, this should be avoided. If they are required to open the dried flowers, they can be spread in thin layers of less than 1 cm on a special paper and 1-2 times with a metal pipe of 2 inches in diameter.
You can also take a look at the export company dates .
Pollen inside the containers must be clean and tight, and in the vicinity of absorbent material such as calcium chloride stored with silica gel. Silagel is a toxic substance and can be purchased from a labware store. To prevent the contact of moisture absorbing material with the pollen mass, silagel can be placed in a permeable air bag such as a glue and grips the bag to the lid of the container.
Date palm pollen can be kept in a refrigerator at a temperature of 5 ° C, without significant degradation during the pollination season. Pollen kept in these conditions for a year is also possible, however, if possible, keep it in the freezer at -15 ° C is preferred.
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